Category Archives: review

review of “First Doctrine”

clip_image001Reviews are normally shared to notify the interested public of new and potentially important publications, particularly relating to certain fields of interest. One of the unfortunate aspects of that fact is that often some of the more important and relevant works are already published long before the reviewer is born. Also, newer works may not be more helpful than older ones, but they are almost certainly more expensive. Some of the more significant works on a given topic may be freely available to all, having passed into public domain, and available online as free e-books.

In light of that, this reviewer does not apologize for being over a century late in his review of The First Doctrine of the Christian Church by Charles Earl Preston et. al. (Providence, RI: The Young Minister’s Christian Union, 1891). This gem, discovered not in a dusty library, but in a Google search, offers valuable assistance for those who are interested both in the history and the doctrines of conditionalism.

The book is a collection of essays on conditional immortality, regarded as the “first doctrine of the Christian church” because it was the hope presented by the first witnesses of Christ in New Testament times. It was prepared for a convention of the Young Minister’s Christian Union, a clergy conference held (it is presumed) that year. The 19th century had seen a number of religious revivals, including the Adventist movement, which had a major impact on America, particularly in re-sparking interest in eschatology. The YMCU was one of the results of that interest.

In the preface, the publisher expressed thanksgiving for being able to present a work defending conditional immortality to the public. The publisher expressed gratitude that “many who were bound by the subtle influence of the traditional dogma are now rejoicing in the blessed truth of life alone in the Redeemer[1].” That traditional dogma it refers to is the belief in the innate immortality of all human beings. Instead, the gospel teaches that Christ alone brings eternal life.

Nature of God

One of the criticisms that this book implies to the traditional doctrine of hell is that it makes God the author of an eternal evil – a place where a significant number of souls (most of all who have ever lived) will suffer in agony for all eternity. The preface quotes a bishop Newton, who wrote “nothing can be more contrary to the divine nature and attributes, than for a God, all-wise, all powerful, all-good, all=perfect, to bestow existence on any beings whose destiny he foresees and foreknows must terminate in wretchedness and misery, without recovery or remedy, without respite or end.”[2] Some, today, are thinking thoughts like this, and it is leading them back to the ancient concepts of probation and purgatory.

Conditionalism offers another alternative. God’s prescribed wages of sin is eternal death, not unending misery. “Eternal Death is at once an eternal punishment and the everlasting blotting out of evil from the universe of God.”[3] Conditionalism is –first and foremost – a defense of God’s loving nature.

Human Nature

An essay in this work traces two diverging lines of thought in theology, both of which can be traced back to Plato’s philosophical doctrine of the immortal soul. Origen’s concept of eventual restoration of all, and Augustine’s doctrine of eternal conscious torment each find their origin in that pagan concept of the indestructible soul. The suggested solution to the problem agrees with Augustine that future punishment must last forever, and agrees with Origen that evil must be blotted out. That solution is what the Bible calls the second death, an eternal death.[4]

Yet, to insist that fallen human beings have been made immortal makes eternal death impossible. “Fallen man to live forever! Oh! No! That was the Devil’s lie whispered in Eve’s ear in Eden and by her believed to the destruction and death of her children.” Instead Christ taught that those who do not come to him will not have life (John 5:40). Paul taught that immortality is a gift promised believers, not a present possession of all (Romans 2:6-7).[5] God created human beings with a marvelous nature, but immortality is not ours this side of the resurrection.

Life after Death

Even today, we are often told that a conscious life immediately after death is a belief shared by all cultures at all times. But the Bible denies that. Paul said, in 1 Thessalonians 4:13, that the Gentiles had no hope of life after death. “While our teachers and preachers are telling us that belief in immortality was universal in the heathen world, Paul who knew that world well, tells us it had no faith in any future life, and no hope beyond the grave.” Justin Martyr and Tertullian said that the heathen believe in “nothing after death.”[6] The concept of natural immortality was devised by pagan philosophy, and adapted syncretistically into Christianity. It had its origin neither in popular belief nor the Bible.

Final Punishment

The ultimate punishment for those who are not saved will be the same punishment Adam was threatened with – “not eternal life in misery, but death.” God will destroy with fire those who will not make it into his eternal kingdom. “It will be an unquenchable fire. Eusebius speaks of unquenchable fire destroying the martyrs. So also in Jeremiah (17:27) we read of such a fire burning the palaces of Jerusalem, though not now burning.”[7] This threat of the final punishment of destruction is what Jesus said people should fear (Matthew 10:28).

The First Doctrine of the Christian Church is not without its flaws. It gets somewhat sidetracked at times, suggesting a bit too strongly that Christ will save many “good” heathens that never knew him. But the book does serve as a good record of 19th century conditionalist thought, and has many good biblical arguments against innate immortality.


Scriptural Index to “The First Doctrine…”

Genesis 1:26-27; 2:17           53 (80)

Genesis 2:15                         60 (87)

Psalm 16:11                           6 (33)

Psalm 21:4                             6 (33)

Psalm 34:10                           4 (31)

Psalm 37:20                           4 (31)

Psalm 145:20                         4 (31)

Isaiah 26:19                           61 (88)

Isaiah 66:24                           5 (32)

Jeremiah 17:27                     4 (31)

Hosea 13:14                          61 (88)

Matthew 10:28                      xii (19), 36 (63)

Luke 16:25                            44 (71)

Luke 20:36                            65 (92)

John 3:16                              3 (30)

John 5:40                              3 (30), 63 (90)

John 6:51                              63 (90)

John 10:27; 11:25                 62 (89)

John 15:22                            44 (71)

Acts 17:30,31                        25 (52)

Romans 2:6-7                        64 (91)

Romans 2:7                           5 (32)

Romans 5:12                         54 (81)

Romans 6:23                         5 (32)

1 Corinthians 15:53-54         5 (32)

1 Thessalonians 4:13            57 (84)

1 Timothy 1:1,10,17             5 (32)

1 Timothy 6:16                     5 (32)

1 Peter 1:3                          66 (93)

1 Peter 3:18-22; 4:1-6        42 (69)

2 Peter 2:6                          4 (31)

1 John 2:17                         3 (30)

1 John 5:11                         3 (30)

Revelation 20:7                  43 (70)


[1] vii (14). [Since this book was scanned into .pdf format, references to page numbers will include the .pdf document page numbers as well. Those numbers will be in parentheses].

[2] ix (16).

[3] 51 (78).

[4] 49-50 (76-77).

[5] 63-64 (90-91).

[6] 58 (85).

[7] 3-4 (30-31).

Advertisements

review of NEIGHBOR TO THE NATIONS

172829979Ron Murch has given readers a great gift in this short biography of Dr. Fred L. Piper. Piper was a pastor, author, educator and poet, but it was a short term missions trip to Jamaica that proved the highlight of this man’s life. His passion for reaching the lost with the gospel of Jesus Christ led him to endure the hardships and uncertainties of that trip. He made an impact on the lives of the people he met, and the experience impacted him for the rest of his life.

Missionaries who have had similar experiences will enjoy reading this book. Those engaged in any Christian ministry will be encouraged by its pages. It reveals the heart of a man who – while still young, suffered the heartbreak of losing his wife to a serious illness. This tragedy did not turn Fred from his devotion to Christ and the lost. In fact, it made him more compassionate.

Fred spent most of his life as a promoter of missions, and seeking to make connections between other supporters and those who were doing the work.

Theologically, he was a conditionalist. He believed that immortality is not an innate possession in humanity, but is a gift of grace available on condition of faith in Christ. Opponents of this view often claim that conditionalists lack the zeal to promote evangelism and missions because they reject the fear factor involved in the popular notion of a perpetual hell for the lost. Piper was living proof that this is not the case. Conditionalists are moved to reach out to the lost with the gospel because the God we know wants them to live for eternity with him.

This story was first written as part of a college assignment, and is just now being published over 50 years later. The story itself is timeless, because it captures the passion of a man who spent his life loving God with all his heart and his neighbor as himself.

Jefferson Vann
Saturday, June 09, 2012

no “hope on the other side of the lake”

clip_image002Review of Erasing Hell by Francis Chan and Preston Sprinkle (Colorado Springs:, Colorado: David C. Cook, 2011) Kindle edition.

Francis Chan and Preston Sprinkle have joined forces to produce a contemporary book on hell that speaks to the hearts of today’s evangelicals, but engages our minds as well. Although admitting a reluctance to take up the subject, their approach flows from people who are serious about it, and who want to faithfully represent what the Bible says about it. They did not want to “get so lost in deciphering” and “forget to tremble” (87).

The title is a bit misleading – since the authors have no intention of actually erasing hell – or letting their readers forget it. Instead, the title speaks to the almost universal reluctance that modern humanity has of even thinking about the possibility of divine punishment. Most of us “would love to erase hell from the pages of Scripture” (13), but the references to final punishment are there, nonetheless.

Some have tried to erase hell by suggesting that it is merely a temporary phenomenon – that eventually all nonbelievers will be restored and God’s love will finally win the day. The problem is, nothing in Scripture “suggests that there’s hope on the other side of the lake (of fire)” (33).

The book prescribes a solution to our problems with hell – that we wise up to the fact that God is sovereign, and he is going to punish the lost so we might as well accept it. He is the potter, we are the clay. If he chooses not to save everyone, his love still wins, because his love is intrinsic. It is not defined by what we might expect it to do. The book defends God and hell, and encourages its readers to accept both as reality.

With one exception, that reality is exactly the teachings of popular Christianity that Rob bell reacted so strongly against.[1] Chan and Sprinkler defend what the modern universalist might call the traditional view of hell – as a place where God will torment unbelievers perpetually for all eternity. The only exception is that for Chan and Sprinkler, hell takes place after the final judgment, not immediately after death. They rightly conclude that the intermediate state is “where the wicked await their judgment” (156). What they do not admit is that it (sheol/hades) is also where the righteous await resurrection, and that for both it is a state of unconsciousness the Bible calls sleep.

No, Chan and Sprinkler will not erase hell. They are uncomfortable with the thought of people suffering for eternity, but conclude that they should not “erase God’s revealed plan of punishment because it doesn’t sit well with” them (135).

The book avoids any discussion of the essential nature of humanity, but proceeds from the same presuppositions regarding that question that Rob Bell did – that human souls are indestructible. This is seen in the explanation of Matthew 25:46, where Jesus speaks of the two destinies. The book argues that “Because the life in this age will never end, given the parallel, it also seems that the punishment in this age will never end” (85). If the authors had not already concluded that both destinies involve life, they could perhaps see that Jesus is not giving a description of two parallel destinies, but contrasting two permanent destinies, where only one involves life. The punishment is not life, but death, and it is just as permanent (Gk. aionios) as the believer’s life.[2]

Since they hold this presupposition of innate immortality, although the authors quote numerous texts of Scripture where hell is described as destruction (26-29, 80, 101-102, 109-111, 130), they conclude that this cannot be taken literally in any of them. They also conclude that the fire of hell is not a literal fire (154), and that the second death will not be a literal death (106-107). Neither of those conclusions can be established by exegesis of the texts themselves. They are all based on the presupposition of the innate immortality of the soul – a doctrine borrowed from paganism and infused into Christian thought by syncretism.

For those convinced that humans already have eternal life, Erasing Hell might achieve its purpose: to encourage them to accept the traditional notion of hell as God’s best — even if it is repugnant to them. Chan admits that he does not feel that God is doing right by tormenting people for eternity, but adds “Maybe someday I will stand in complete agreement with (God), but for now I attribute the discrepancy to an underdeveloped sense of justice on my part” (141).

For me, the problem is not with God’s justice. If God created human beings immortal, his justice demands that they spend eternity suffering for their rejection of him. But that is just it. The Bible insists that humanity lost its chance at immortality in the garden of Eden. Since then, the only hope for anyone to live forever is found in Christ. Hell is designed for those outside of Christ. They have nothing immortal that would burn forever if thrown into a lake of fire. The fires of Hell will do what God says they will do. They will destroy those thrown into them, body and soul.[3]

This is both God’s justice and his love, because his new creation will be purged of all sin and evil. There will be no hell existing perpetually beside the kingdom. Christ will destroy all of God’s enemies.[4] That is the biblical hell. It ends God’s judgment and makes room for the eternal kingdom of life and love. That event is absolutely essential to God’s plan in history. No one should want to erase it.


[1] Rob Bell, LOVE WINS: A Book About Heaven, Hell, and the Fate of Every Person Who Ever Lived. (Robert H. Bell, Jr. Trust, 2011).

[2] For more on the meaning of aionios, see my article “Solving the Problem of Hell.” http://www.afterlife.co.nz/2011/theology/annihilationism/solving-the-problem-of-hell-by-jefferson-vann/

[3] Matthew 10:28. For more on this fate, see Edward Fudge, The Fire that Consumes, third edition. (Eugene Oregon: Cascade Books, 2011).

[4] 1 Corinthians 15:24-26.

“life has no meaning without destiny”

efd2

Review of Earth’s Final Dawn by Clinton E. Taber.

The subtitle of Clint Taber’s new book Earth’s Final Dawn[1] is “understanding this age in view of the coming new age.” It is a systematic eschatology with numerous practical insights. Taber believes that “life has no meaning without destiny” (43). The destiny he envisions is the restoration of Edenic Paradise for eternity, cleansed of all things temporary – like sickness, pain, sin and death. The Bible is the story of how those temporary things came to be, and what God is doing to bring them to an end. It reveals how God has worked through history to replace the temporary kingdoms of Satan and men with his permanent kingdom, ruled by Christ. That kingdom is now in its formation phase – where God is preparing “a people who would live in fellowship with Him in His Kingdom Paradise for His glory forever (xxii).

Humanity is on the verge of witnessing earth’s final dawn – the dawn of the age to come. In this present age, Christ dealt with our sin problem by becoming our sacrifice of atonement. In the new age, after Christ returns, he will destroy death by raising his own from their graves, and destroy all his enemies by consuming them with the fires of hell. All of this is immanent – it could happen at any moment. All of this is necessary – because God’s plan for a restored Edenic Paradise cannot happen without it.

In Taber’s explanation of these things, you will find exegetical overviews of significant eschatological books of the Bible (like Daniel and Revelation) and extensive treatments of relevant doctrines (like the resurrection, the timing of the second coming, and conditional immortality).[2] His treatments are thorough, biblically sound, and up-to-date. He avoids following the party-line of popular end-times teachings, but points out that their popularity is due to the relevance that eschatology has for everyone.

Taber is not an extremist. He encourages balanced, biblical thinking on these important issues. He discourages the kind of date-setting fanaticism that has brought shame to the Church historically, and recently. He presents a powerful case that Christ could come in this generation, but stops short of saying that he definitely will. His evidence is compelling to anyone, but especially to those of us who long for our coming king.

Taber goes beyond simply proving that Christ is coming again. He gives his readers an appetite for the event. His descriptions of “main street” and “paradise park” (chapter 7) paint emotionally charged portraits of why Christ must come back. He captures the angst of this age with his descriptions of the pain, anxiety, trouble and sorrow that this world is now facing. He offers glimpses of a new age where the old limitations and sorrows are erased – the old bondages destroyed. He speaks as a man, and as a man of God who has seen much suffering, but who still believes that “God will not leave man forever in a world that falls short of his glory and purpose” (247).

Tabor neither expects nor demands complete agreement with everything he has presented. He encourages investigation. I took exception with Taber’s treatment of Rev. 20, and of some of his exegesis of Matthew 24. But these minor differences of exegesis did not deter me from my enjoyment of the work, or my benefit from it. Taber’s work is a well-written reminder that the second coming of Christ is the believer’s blessed hope. Come, Lord Jesus.


[1] Clinton E. Taber, Earth’s Final Dawn (Xulon Press, 2011) hereafter referred to by page number or chapter.

[2] Conditionalists will find particular interest in chapter 2, where Taber shows that Christ was sent to fight the battle of the ages in his own grave (63). Taber points out that “Death is the antithesis of life. Contrary to popular opinion, it is not the same as life. Death prevents man (even a believer) from experiencing the glories of God’s Kingdom Paradise. Without resurrection, there isn’t any future for man” (64). In chapter 5, Taber argues against the notion of innate immortality and for the notion of humanity’s complete dependence upon God. He investigates three views of what happens at death (reincarnation, relocation and resurrection) and concludes that “our problem with death stems from the fact that we were created for something better” (157). In chapter 6, Taber explains why the adjective eternal describes both destinies: “Eternal death is death forever. Eternal life is life forever” (193).

the big picture

clip_image002Review of The Tree of Life: A Biblical Study of Immortality & New Creation by Paul Sellman

(c) 2010, Outskirts Press, Inc.

Pastor Paul Sellman has produced a significant study in biblical theology for the modern context. Much like John Stott and Edward Fudge, Sellman came to his study of the issues of life, death and destiny convinced that people go to their rewards at death. His study of the scriptures has revealed a different outlook. He now sees that death is not the answer to humanity’s problem, it is part of that problem. The solution to humanity’s problem is Jesus Christ, whose return will mean the end of evil, and an eternal new beginning for the saved.

The genius of Sellman’s approach to this controversial subject is his way of simplifying these very complex issues. He asks his readers to put aside their preconceived notions and to imagine all history as being represented by two ages: this age, and the age to come.

clip_image004

 

This age is the age of mortality because humanity rebelled against God in Eden, thus lost the opportunity to take of the tree of life and live forever. The age to come is an age of restoration where God renews heaven and earth with life eternal as it was meant to be. The crucial event which will put an end to this age of mortality and usher in the age of eternal life is what the Bible calls the Day of the Lord.

clip_image006

 

Sellman shows from scripture that this Day of the Lord is an event taught in both Testaments. It is the Day of Jesus Christ and the Day of his return, and Resurrection Day, and Judgment Day. It is the essential event in all history, since it divides the two ages. It corrects the problems of this age, and explains the destiny of those who will by God’s grace make it into the next.

Sellman attacks some of the theological traditions within popular Christianity that tend to obscure this way of looking at things. Chief among these traditions is the concept borrowed from Greek philosophy that all human souls are already immortal. Sellman argues that this is “an unbiblical presupposition” (152) which has led Christians who read the Bible to “see something that isn’t there” (172). He calls this view “the great heresy of all existence” (195). Immortality was lost in Eden, and will not be gained back “until the rebellion that lost it is ended” (197).

To Sellman, “good theology is based upon what is clearly taught, and then filled in by the less certain elements” (91). What is clearly taught in scripture is humanity’s need for eternal life in this age; God’s plan to fill that need in the age to come; and the Day of the Lord which will make God’s plan reality.

So, until that great event of the Day of the Lord arrives, those who die wait unconscious in their graves for resurrection – either to eternal life or to the second death. That is why the Bible calls Christians who have died asleep in Christ.

It is impossible for a reviewer to like everything about a book — so there are a few changes that might improve this work in its next edition. Here is a short list of suggestions:

1. The frequent use of the first person is a style matter, but it seems to detract from the scholarly nature of the study.

2. Quotes from the Bible are everywhere in this work, but the font, italics, and justification combined in quotations tend to make some of the text run together.

3. Sellman steers away from a number of technical and complicated issues and avoids getting carried away in discussing particularly problematic texts. This is a good thing, but might be seen by opponents of his position as “chickening out.” A few well-placed reference notes to popular works (like that of Stott and Edwards) which do get into those texts might help.

4. The Tree of Life is not yet available in electronic book format. If it were, this review would have been written sooner!

The Tree of Life is a skilful and contemporary approach to questions that God’s people have been asking since the time of the patriarchs. It is the kind of book that pastors can pass on to new church members, who are just getting to know about the issues of life, death, and destiny. It helps to explain the way things are, and whet our appetites for the way things will be.

Jefferson Vann

Williamsburg, Virginia, USA

Bell’s Base Cards

lovewins Rob Bell does a masterful job of shaking the foundations of the modern theology of human destiny in his new book entitled Love Wins.[1]  He exposes the fact that much of what people say about salvation and human destiny is not based on the Bible, therefore does not hold up to the scrutiny of direct questioning. He dares to ask direct questions – many of them.

His tactic is similar to that of knocking down base cards in someone’s house of cards. A house of cards can be an enormous thing, but it is only as strong as the first few cards one lays out. Those base cards serve as the foundation. If they are stable, one can build fortresses out of flimsy cards upon them. But topple those base cards and the entire thing falls apart.  Bell has identified some flimsy base cards in modern theology: the idea that only professing believers will go to heaven and its corollary that all others will suffer in hell forever.

He attacked those familiar base cards by appealing to scripture after scripture to show that the Bible addresses very different issues. He wanted to show that the whole of modern theology about human destiny was built upon assumptions that do not come from the Bible.  He accomplished that mission. Each chapter in the book identifies a presupposition, and then proceeds to topple it by going to the text of scripture and comparing the presupposition to what scripture actually says. In short, Bell does theology and he does it well.

Nevertheless, Bell’s book is destined to be much maligned.  He has taken on subjects which are practically taboo for evangelical Christians.  “Heaven when you die” and “conscious eternal suffering for the lost” are concepts that are too holy for most good church people to investigate.  Expect Bell to be branded a hopeless Universalist. Expect retaliation. Expect The DaVinci Code all over again.

…And rightfully so.  Any good theologian worth his or her salt makes a difference.  Bell has swung a pendulum, and one should expect the thing to swing back in the other direction. Paul told the Corinthians that “there must be factions among you in order that those who are genuine among you may be recognized.”[2]  Bad theology can mobilize good theology.

With that in mind, let me tell you where I think Bell has it wrong.  He spends numerous pages showing that the gospel message is not about going to heaven when you die – then he puts the saved in heaven when they die. He can do no other, because for Bell (and most of his opponents) the human soul has to live eternally somewhere.  Bell sweeps away all of the scriptural evidence that he has amassed against the concept that heaven is a destination. In the end, he says what he has been arguing against.

He agrees with his opponents that all human beings are immortal, except that, unlike them, he argues that their immortality gives human beings hope for restoration to God even after their bodies die. He argues from scripture that God is love and therefore never gives up on his own. So, as long as there is life, there is hope. He argues for the concept of future probation on the basis of two premises: God never stops loving, and human beings never stop living.

Herein is the problem: none of Bell’s opponents want to deny either of those premises.  They believe that God is both loving and just.  They want to agree with what the Bible says about his love, but not forget that it gives equal time to his wrath.  When they talk about Judgment Day, they envision that it will be just that – a day in which God will judge humanity, and determine the eternal fate of everyone.  They cannot envision a Judgment Day that extends to however many years and centuries needed to purge humanity of all sin and rescue all. Hence, they must believe that death seals the fate of all.

The all important doctrine that Bell and most of his opponents agree upon is the concept of innate immortality: that all humans are born immortal. That doctrine will lead Bell’s opponents to insist on eternal conscious suffering in hell for the lost. It leads Bell to insist that a loving God would never condemn people to such a fate for a limited life of sin; therefore he must give opportunity for restoration.

Allow me then – in Rob Bell fashion – to suggest that it is that presupposition that keeps both Bell and his opponents from seeing what the Bible says about the destiny of the lost.   The Bible says that only God is immortal.[3]  Immortality is a promise from God that Christ will give to the saved – it is not an innate characteristic of every human.[4]  For anybody to live anywhere forever, they must have eternal life. Eternal life is promised to the saved only.[5]

What, then, is the destiny of the lost?  The God of justice who gave us his truth in his word has decreed that the lost will be destroyed.[6]  Since the wages of sin is death, they will die.[7]  They will be appropriately punished according to the decree of a God who is both loving and just, and then they will be no more.[8]  They have been granted one life to live.  That one life is a gift of grace from God. Nobody deserves to live forever.  God is under no obligation to give unbelievers an eternal life, either to suffer, or to repent. He is sovereign, and if he has decided that the wages of sin is death, no theologian has the right to convert the sentence.

Bell wrote a book about a victory.  He envisions an eternity in which all sin is forgiven, all wrongs are righted, and love wins.  He is absolutely right. Love will win because God will win.  God will win because he is God, not because he is love. His love and justice work together to produce a heaven and earth without evil. Our participation in that victory is not a given. Some will not make it. That is what it ultimately means to be lost. In the end, God wins. Reader, where do you stand before God? Don’t take his patience for granted.


[1] Rob Bell, LOVE WINS: A Book About Heaven, Hell, and the Fate of Every Person Who Ever Lived.  (Robert H. Bell, Jr. Trust, 2011).

[2] 1 Corinthians 11:19.

[3] Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17; 6:16.

[4] Romans 2:7; 1 Corinthians 15:53-54; 1 Timothy 1:10.

[5] Matthew 25:46; John 3:15-16, 36; 4:14; 6:27, 40, 47, 54, 68, 10:28; 12:25; Acts 13:46, 48; Romans 2:7; 5:21; 6:22; 1 Timothy 6:12; 1 John 5:11; Jude 1:21.

[6] Matt. 10:28; 22:7; Luke 17: 27, 29; 20:16; 1 Cor. 3:17; 6:13; 15:24, 26; Heb. 10:39; 2 Peter 2:12; Rev. 11:18.

[7] Matt. 21:41; John 5:24; 8:51; Romans 6:16, 23; 1 Cor. 15:26, 54; James 5:20; 1 John 3:14; Rev. 21:8.

[8] Psalm 104:35; Ezekiel 26:21; 27:36; 28:19.